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Hatter's Library

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Environmental Toxicology of Mercury

  • Anonymous. Mercury exposure among residents of a building formerly used for industrial purposes--New Jersey, 1995. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1996 May 24;45(20):422-4 (1996).
  • Anonymous. Mercury exposure in a residential community-Florida 1994. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 44(16):436-437,443 (1995).
  • Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Backgrounder: Toxicological profile for mercury. External SitePDF
  • Johnson BL, Hicks HE, Jones DE, Cibulas W, Wargo A, De Rosa CT. Public health implications of persistent toxic substances in the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence basins. Journal of Great Lakes Research 24(3):698-722, 1998.
  • Koppel C, Fahron G. Toxicological and neuropsychological findings in patients presenting to an environmental toxicology service. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol, 33(6):625-9 (1995).
  • National Research Council. Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury. A report of the Committee on the Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, National Research Council. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000. External Site.
  • U.S. EPA. Mercury Update: Impact on Fish Advisories. EPA-816-F-99-016. Washington, DC:U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1999.

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Mad Hatters - Real and Fictional
  • Broad WJ. Sir Isaac Newton: mad as a hatter. Science. 213(4514):1341-2, 1344 (1981).
  • Carroll, Lewis. A Mad Tea Party. Chapter 7 In: Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. (1865). Available online through the Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library: External Site
  • Dumont MP. Psychotoxicology: the return of the mad hatter. Soc Sci Med, 29(9):1077-82 (1989).
  • Horowitz M, Dent J. The study of gastric mechanics and flow: a Mad Hatter's tea party starting to make sense? Gastroenterology. 107(1):302-6 (1994).
  • O'Carroll RE, Masterton G, Dougall N, Ebmeier KP, Goodwin GM. The neuropsychiatric sequelae of mercury poisoning. The Mad Hatter's disease revisited. Br J Psychiatry, 167(1):95-8 (1995).
  • Waldron HA. Did the Mad Hatter have mercury poisoning? Br Med J (Clin Res Ed), 24-31;287(6409):1961 (1983).
  • Wedeen RP. Were the hatters of New Jersey "mad"? Am J Ind Med. 1989;16(2):225-33 (1989).

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Blood Pressure Measurement - Pros & Cons of Alternatives to Mercury Sphygmomanometers

  • Aylett M. Pressure for change: unresolved issues in blood pressure measurement. Br J Gen Pract, 49(439):136-9 (1999).
  • Bailey RH, Knaus VL, Bauer JH. Aneroid sphygmomanometers. An assessment of accuracy at a university hospital and clinics. Arch Intern Med, 151(7):1409-12 (1991).
  • Bottini PB, Carr AA, Prisant LM, Rhoades RB. Variability and similarity of manual office and automated blood pressures. J Clin Pharmacol, 32(7):614-9 (1992).
  • Brinton TJ, Walls ED, Yajnik AK, Chio SS. Age-based differences between mercury sphygmomanometer and pulse dynamic blood pressure measurements. Blood Press Monit, 3(2):125-129 (1998).
  • Burke MJ. An electronic manometer for blood-pressure measurement. J Med Eng Technol. 16(6):197-202 (1999).
  • Gonzalez Biosca MD, Fernandez-Cruz A, Mizushima S, Yamori Y. Correlation between objective automatic and auscultatory mercury manometer blood pressure measurements. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 16(Suppl 8):S26-7 (1990).
  • Gourlay SG, McNeil JJ, Marriner T, Farish SJ, Prijatmoko D, McGrath BP. Discordance of mercury sphygmomanometer and ambulatory blood pressure measurements for the detection of untreated hypertension in a population study. J Hum Hypertens, 7(5):467-72 (1993).
  • Grim CE, Garcia J, Fong RJ, Drew CR. The health risks of removing mercury manometers from the hospital and clinic. American Society of Hypertension. 7(4):172 (1994).
  • Markandu ND, Whitcher F, Arnold A, Carney C. The mercury sphygmomanometer should be abandoned before it is proscribed. J Hum Hypertens, 14(1):31-6 (2000).
  • Mion D, Pierin AM. How accurate are sphygmomanometers? J Hum Hypertens, 12(4):245-8 (1998).
  • O'Brien E. Will mercury manometers soon be obsolete? J Human Hypertension [editorial] 933-934 (1995).
  • Padfield PL. The demise of the mercury sphygmomanometer. Scot Med J 43):1185-1189 (1998).
  • Prisant LM, Alpert BS, Robbins CB, Berson AS, Hayes M, Cohen ML, Sheps SG. American National Standard for nonautomated sphygmomanometers. Summary report. Am J Hypertens, 8(2):210-3 (1995).
  • Rennie AC, McGregor-Schuerman M, Dale IM et al. Mercury poisoning after spillage at home from a sphygmomanometer on loan from hospital. Brit Med J 319(7206):366-377 (1999).
  • Rogers P, Burke V, Stroud P, Puddey IB. Comparison of oscillometric blood pressure measurements at the wrist with an upper-arm auscultatory mercury sphygmomanometer. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol, 26(5-6):477-81 (1999).
  • Smith GR. Devices for blood pressure measurement. Prof Nurse. 2000 15(5):337-40 (2000).
  • Stewart MJ, Padfield PL. Blood pressure measurement: an epitaph for the mercury sphygmomanometer? Clin Sci (Colch), 83(1):1-12 (1992).
  • Stewart MJ, Padfield PL. Measurement of blood pressure in the technological age. Br Med Bull, 50(2):420-42 (1994).
  • Suzuki K, Matsunago K. Umeuura Y et al. 2 cases of occupational dermatitis due to mercury vapor from a broken sphygmomanometer. Contact Dermatitis 43(3): 175-177 (2000).
  • van Egmond J, Lenders JW, Weernink E, Thien T. Accuracy and reproducibility of 30 devices for self-measurement of arterial blood pressure. Am J Hypertens. 6(10):873-9 (1993).
  • White WB. Accuracy and analysis of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring data. Clin Cardiol. 1992 Oct;15(5 Suppl 2):II10-3 (1992).

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  • Arenholt-Bindslev D. Environmental aspects of dental filling materials. Eur J Oral Sci. 106(2 Pt 2):713-20 (1998).
  • Fan PL, Arnholt-Bindslev D, Schmalz G, Halbach S, Berendsen H. Environmental issues in dentistry - mercury. 47(2):105-109 (1997).
  • Hughes J, Ingram B.J. The concern over mercury and wastewater. Journal of the Michigan Dental Association 77(4):28-29 (1995).
  • Kummerer K, Wallenhorst T, Kielbassa AM Mercury emissions from dental chairs by disinfection. Chemosphere. Aug;35(4):827-33(1997).
  • Lonnroth EC, Shahnavaz H. Dental clinics--a burden to environment? Swed Dent J. 20(5):173-81 (1996)
  • Parsell DE, Karns L, Buchanan WT, Johnson RB. Mercury release during autoclave sterilization of amalgam. J Dent Educ. 60(5):453-8 (1996).
  • Pederson ED, Stone ME, Ovsey VG. The removal of mercury from dental-operatory wastewater by polymer treatment. Environ Health Perspect. 107(1):3-8 (1999).
  • Rubin PG, Yu M-H. Mercury vapor in amalgam waste discharged from dental office vacuum units. Arch Environ Health 51(4):335-7 (1996).

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Drugs and Biologics

  • Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Merck thimerosal-free Recombivax should be used for newborns. F-D-C Reports "The Pink Sheet" Prescription Pharmaceuticals and Biotechnology 61(44):11-12 (1999).
  • American Academy of Pediatrics and Public Health Service. Notice to readers: Thimersosal in vaccines: a joint statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Public Health Service. MMWR Weekly 48(26):563-565 (1999).
  • U.S. EPA. Mercury Study Report to Congress. Volume V: Health Effects of Mercury and Mercury Compounds. EPA-452/R-97-007. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997.
  • U.S. FDA. Mercury compounds in drugs and food. Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration. Available: [cited 14 December 2000].
  • U.S. DHHS. Thimerosal in vaccines: A joint statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Public Health Service. MMWR 48(26):563-565 (1999)

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Healthcare Facilities

  • ECRI. Managing mercury. Healthcare Hazardous Materials Management 9(5):1-4 (1996).
  • Health Care Without Harm. Making Medicne Mercury Free. Falls Church Virginia: Health Care Without Harm, 1998.
  • Environmental Working Group/The Tides Center. Protecting by degrees. What hospitals can do to reduce mercury pollution. Falls Church, VA: Health Care Without Harm. (1999).
  • Krivanek CS. Mercury control technologies for MWC's: The unanswered questions. Journal of Hazardous Materials 47:119-136 (1996).
  • Kittles LT. CC mercury reduction project in full swing. NIH Clinical Center News (1998).
  • Kittles LT. CC Moves to reduce mercury. NIH Record L(24):3, 1998b.
  • Krug L, Williams G. Mercury pollution prevention measures in Michigan health care institutions. Great Lakes Center Water Quality Project. [cited 10 March 1998].
  • Lee CC, Huffman GL. Metal behavior during medical waste incineration. ACS Symposium Series. 515:189-198 (1993).
  • Quayle C. Heavy metal. Mercury is dropping off the charts-but not fast enough. Health Facilities Management. 13(2):5050, 5052 (2000).
  • U.S. EPA. Fact Sheet. Voluntary Partnership with the American Hospital Association to Reduce Hospital Waste. EPA 742-F-99-016. Washington, DC:U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1999

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  • Commonwealth of Massachusetts Executive Office of Environmental Affairs, Office of Technical Assistance. Toxics Use Reduction Case Study - Reducing Mercury Discharge at a Testing Laboratory. (1995). External SitePDF
  • Hongyo T, Buzard GS, Calvert RJ, Weghorst CM. 'Cold SSCP': a simple, rapid and non-radioactive method for optimized single-strand conformation polymorphism analyses. Nucleic Acids Research, 21(16):3637-3642 (1993).
  • Massachusetts Executive Office of Environmental Affairs. Toxics Use Reduction Case Study. Reducing Mercury Discharge at a Testing Laboratory. Boston, MA:Executive Office of Environmental Affairs, Office of Technical Assistance, 1995.
  • Office of Technical Assistance of the State of Massachusetts Research and Development #1 - Reducing Mercury Discharge at a Testing Laboratory. (1992). External Site
  • Wlliams G. Mercury Pollution Prevention in Healthcare. A Prescription for Success. Ann Arbor, MI: National Wildlife Federation, Great Lakes Natural Resource Center, 1997.
  • Yearick V. Superior biocide now available to laboratories. Supelco Newsletter 16(2):8 (1997).

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Lighting Systems

  • Anonymous. Fluorescent lights: future hazardous waste of America? Health Hazard Mater Managt. 10(2):1-6 (1996).
  • Clear R, Berman S. Environmental and health-aspects of lighting-mercury. J Illum Eng Soc 16: (2) 138-152 SUM (1994).
  • Freeman TW; Oppold JA. Mercury hazard and its control during operation of fluorescent tube breakers. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 33(6):419-22 (1972).
  • Gjersvik LW. More regulators target fluorescent-lamp disposal. Health Facil Manage. 6(3):50, 52, 54-5 (1993).
  • Jungwirth H. Disposal of fluorescent lamps. Health Estate J. 46(10):6-8 (1992).
  • U.S. EPA. Hazardous waste management system; modification of the hazardous waste program; hazardous waste lamps; final rule. Federal Register 64(128):36465-36490 (1999).

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Medical Waste Incineration

  • Krivanek CS. Mercury control technologies for municipal waste combustors: The unanswered questions. J Hazardous Materials 47:119-136 (1996).

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Thermometers - Pros & Cons of Mercury and Alternatives in Clinical Uses

  • Abolnik IZ, Kithas PA, McDonnald JJ, Soller JB, Izrailevsky YA, Granger DL. Comparison of oral and tympanic temperatures in a Veterans Administration outpatient clinic. Am J Med Sci, 317(5):301-3 (1999).
  • Amoateng-Adjepong Y, Del Mundo J, Manthous CA. Accuracy of an infrared tympanic thermometer. Chest, 115(4):1002-5 (1999).
  • Androkites AL, Werger AM, Young ML. Comparison of axillary and infrared tympanic membrane thermometry in a pediatric oncology outpatient setting. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs 15(4):216-22 (1998).
  • Anonymous. Types of Thermometers: How They Work. Available: External Site [cited 15 December 2000].
  • Beckstrand RL, Wilshaw R, Moran S, Schaalje GB. Supralingual temperatures compared to tympanic and rectal temperatures. Pediatr Nurs, 22(5):436-8 (1996).
  • Blumenthal I. Should we ban the mercury thermometer? Discussion paper. J R Soc Med, 85(9):553-5 (1992).
  • Board M. Comparison of disposable and glass mercury thermometers. Nurs Times, 16-22;91(33):36-7 (1995).
  • Buswell C. Comparing mercury and disposable thermometers. Prof Nurse, 12(5):359-62 (1997).
  • Clarke S. Use of thermometers in general practice. BMJ, 304(6832):961-3 Early Hum Dev, 53(2):171-8 (1998).
  • ERCI. Infrared ear thermometry. Health Devices 431-436 (1991).
  • Erickson RS, Meyer LT. Accuracy of infrared ear thermometry and other temperature methods in adults. Am J Critical Care 3(1):40-54 (1994).
  • Flo G, Brown M. Comparing three methods of temperature taking: oral mercury-in-glass, oral diatek, and tympanic first temp. 44(2):120-122.
  • Flo G, Brown M. Comparing three methods of temperature taking: oral mercury-in-glass, oral Diatek, and tympanic First Temp. Nurs Res, 44(2):120-2 (1995).
  • Forno C. Mercury versus disposable thermometers. Prof Nurse, 12(9):673 (1997).
  • Garite P, Klein K. Advances in temperature measurement: infrared technology. American Laboratory 32(16):26 (2000).
  • Giuffre M, Fletcher J, Gravatt R, Hindt L, Ivey G, Hickman R. Investigating the reliability and validity of the infrared tympanic thermometer: A learning experience. J Post Anesthesia Nursing 10(5):280-285 (1995).
  • Greenes, DS, Fleisher GR. Accuracy of a noninvasive temporal artery thermometer for use in infants. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine. 155(3):376-381 (2001). Available online.
  • Health Care Without Harm. Mercury Thermometers and Your Family's Health. Falls Church, VA: Health Care Without Harm, No date.
  • Henker R, Coyne C. Comparison of peripheral temperature measurements with core temperature. AACN Clinic Issues 6(1):21-30 (1995).
  • Hooker EA, Smith SW, Miles T, King L. Subjective assessment of fever by parents: comparison with measurement by noncontact tympanic thermometer and calibrated rectal glass mercury thermometer. Ann Emerg Med, 28(3):313-7 (1996).
  • Huang HP, Shih HM. Use of infrared thermometry and effect of otitis externa on external ear canal temperature in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 213(1):76-9 (1998).
  • Jensen BN, Jensen FS, Madsen SN, Lossl K. Accuracy of digital tympanic, oral, axillary, and rectal thermometers compared with standard rectal mercury thermometers. Eur J Surg, 166(11):848-51 (2000).
  • Jensen BN, Jeppesen LJ, Mortensen BB, Kjaergaard B, Andreasen H, Glavind K. The superiority of rectal thermometry to oral thermometry with regard to accuracy. J Adv Nurs, 20(4):660-5 (1994).
  • Klein DG, Mitchell C, Petrinec A, Monroe MK, Oblak M, Ross B, Youngblut JM. A comparison of pulmonary artery, rectal, and tympanic membrane temperature measurement in the ICU. Heart Lung, 22(5):435-41 (1994).
  • Leick-Rude MK, Bloom LF. A comparison of temperature-taking methods in neonates. Neonatal Netw. 17(5):21-37 (1998).
  • Manian FA, Griesenauer S. Lack of agreement between tympanic and oral temperature measurements in adult hospitalized patients. Am J Infect Control. 26(4):428-30 (1998).
  • Modell JG, Katholi CR, Kumaramangalam SM, Hudson EC, Graham D. Unreliability of the infrared tympanic thermometer in clinical practice: a comparative study with oral mercury and oral electronic thermometers. South Med J, 91(7):649-54 (1998).
  • Morley C, Murray M, Whybrew K. The relative accuracy of mercury, Tempa-DOT and FeverScan thermometers.
  • O'Toole S. Alternatives to mercury thermometers. Prof Nurse, 12(11):783-6 (1997). Payne D, Johnson A, McKenzie S, Rogers M. Chemical and glass thermometers for axillary temperatures: how do they compare? Arch Dis Child, 71(3):259-60 (1994).
  • Petersen-Smith A, Barber N, Coody DK, West MS, Yetman RJ. Comparison of aural infrared with traditional rectal temperatures in children from birth to age three years. J Pediatr, 125(1):83-5 (1994).
  • Pontious SL, Kennedy A, Chung KL, Burroughs TE, Libby LJ, Vogel DW. Accuracy and reliability of temperature measurement in the emergency department by instrument and site in children. Pediatric Nursing 20(1):58-63 (1994).
  • Prentice D, Moreland J. A comparison of infrared ear thermometry with electronic predictive thermometry in a geriatric setting. Geriatr Nurs, 20(6):314-7 (1999).
  • Sganga A, Wallace R, Kiehl E, Irving T, Witter L. A comparison of four methods of normal newborn temperature measurement. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs, 25(2):76-9 (2000).
  • Shenep JL, Adair JR, Hughes WT, Roberson PK, Flynn PM, Brodkey TO, Fullen GH, Kennedy WT, Oakes LL, Marina NM. Infrared, thermistor, and glass-mercury thermometry for measurement of body temperature in children with cancer. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 30(4 Suppl):36-41; discussion 49 (1991).
  • Silverman BG, Daley R, Rubin JD. The use of infared ear thermometers in pediatric and family practice offices. Public Health Reports 113: 268-272 (1998).
  • Smith J. Are electronic thermometry techniques suitable alternatives to traditional mercury in glass thermometry techniques in the paediatric setting? J Adv Nurs, 28(5):1030-9 (1998).
  • Smitz S, Giagoultsis T, Dewe W, Albert A. Comparison of rectal and infrared ear temperatures in older hospital inpatients. J Am Geriatr Soc, 48(1):63-6 (2000).
  • Stavem K, Saxholm H, Smith-Erichsen N. Accuracy of infrared ear thermometry in adult patients. Intensive Care Med, 16(1):100-5 (1997).
  • Thigpen J, Sexson WR. Mercury toxicity awareness in the nursery. J Perinatol, 17(2):140-2 (1997).
  • Weiss ME, Pue AF, Smith J. Laboratory and hospital testing of new infrared tympanic thermometers. J Clin Eng 16(2):137-144 (1991).
  • Yeo S, Hayashi RH, Wan JY, Dubler B. Tympanic versus rectal thermometry in pregnant women. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs, 24(8):719-24 (1995).
  • Yetman RJ, Coody DK, West MS, Montgomery D, Brown M. Comparison of temperature measurements by an aural infrared thermometer with measurements by traditional rectal and axillary techniques. J Pediatr, 122(5 Pt 1):769-73 (1993).
  • Zeal JD. Disposable thermometers [letter; comment]. Professional Nurse 129(12):891 (1997).
  • Zengeya ST, Blumenthal I. Modern electronic and chemical thermometers used in the axilla are inaccurate. Eur J Pediatr, 155(12):1005-8 (1996).

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Thermometers - Reports of Injuries and Illnesses Associated with Mercury

  • Descamps V, Lejoyeux F, Marck Y, Bouscarat F, Crickx B, Belaich S. Erysipelas-like mercury exanthem. Contact Dermatitis, 36(5):277-8 (1997).
  • Downs CT, London NJ, Wood PC, Butterworth P, Ratliff DA. Deliberate mercury self-poisoning. Br J Hosp Med, 51(8):414-5 (1994).
  • Martijn A, van Loon JK, Wood BP. Radiological case of the month. Ingestion of mercury from a broken thermometer. Am J Dis Child, 144(2):205-6 (1990).
  • Marik PE, Ballhausen VM. Inhalation of a mercury thermometer. Chest, 100(2):592 (1991).
  • Sau P, Solivan G, Johnson FB. Cutaneous reaction from a broken thermometer. J Am Acad Dermatol, 25(5 Pt 2):915-919 (1991).
  • Shimoyama T, Kaneko T, Horie N. Floor of mouth injury by mercury from a broken thermometer. J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 56(1):96-98 (1998).
  • Smith SR, Jaffe DM, Skinner MA. Case report of metallic mercury injury. Pediatr Emerg Care, 13(2):114-116
  • Tanaka T, Miyake M, Tono S, Asatani T, Usui M. Surgical extraction of traumatic orbital mercury. Ophthalmologica, 211(6):402-4 (1997).
  • Yotsuyanagi T, Yokoi K, Sawada Y. Facial injury by mercury from a broken thermometer. J Trauma, 40(5):847-9 (1996).

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Toxicology of Mercury - Laboratory Exposures

  • Junghans RP. A review of the toxicity of methylmercury compounds with application to occupational exposures associated with laboratory uses. Environmental Research 31: 1-31 (1983).
  • Langford N, Ferner R. Toxicity of mercury. J Human Hypertension 13(10): 651-656 (1999).
  • Nierenberg DW, Nordgren RE, Chang MB, Siegler RW, Blayney MB, Hochberg F, Toribara TY, Cernichiari E, Clarkson T. Delayed Cerebellar disease and death after accidental exposure to dimethylmercury. New England J Medicine 338:1672-1676 (1998).
  • Siegler RW, Nierenberg DW, Hickey WF. Fatal poisoning from liquid dimethylmercury. A neuropathologic study. Human Pathology: (6) 720-716 (1999).

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This page was last updated on Dec 14, 2012